Polonium Pollution @ Vermont’s 5 pCi/L Action Level vs

EPA’s Proposed Alternative MCL (AMCL) for Radon-222 in Drinking Water of 4,000 pCi/L[1]

Fig 1

Fig 2a

Fig 2b

Activity (0-6pCi/L) vs Time (0 to 60 min & 3 days)

Fig 3

Activity (0-15pCi/L) vs Time (0 to 180min)

Fig 4

Activity (0-12,000 pCi/L) vs Time (0 to 180 min)

Fig. 1. Ra-226 Decay Chain includes one radioactive gas (Rn-222), seven radioactive metals (Po-218, Pb-214, Bi-214, Po-214, Pb-210, Bi-210, Po-210) & one non-radioactive metal Pb-206. [2]

Fig. 2. Alpha acivity in drinking water produced by 5 pCi/L of Rn-222, Po-218 & Po-214; predicted by Moral’s equations 1-21(d).[3]

Fig. 3. Top curve shows total Alpha activity produced by Rn-222 in tap water will never exceed EPA’s Gross-Alpha MCL of 15 pCi/L at Vermont’s 5 pCi/L action level.

Fig. 4. Top curve shows total Alpha activity produced by Rn-222 will exceed EPA’s Gross-Alpha MCL of 15 pCi/L less than a minute after 4000 pCi/L of Rn-222 is added to tap water.

Fig 5a

Fig 5b

Activity (0-5000pCi/L vs Time (0 to 60 min & 3 day)

Fig 6a

Fig 6b

Activity (0-5000 pCi/L) vs Time (0 to 60 min & 3 days)

Fig 7a

Fig 7b

Activity (0-2 pCi/L) vs Time (0 to 50 & 1000 days)


Radiation Energy (MEV) vs Time (minutes)

Fig. 5 Alpha Activity from 4000 pCi/L of Rn-222 and its fastest decaying Alpha emitters: Po-218 & Po-214.

Fig. 6. Beta & Photon Activity from 4000 pCi/L of Rn-222 and its fastest decaying, carcinogenic Beta/Photon emitters: Pb-214, Bi-214, Bi-210.

Fig. 7 Alpha/Beta/Photon Activity from 4000 pCi/L of Po-214 and its progeny: Pb-210, Bi-210 & Po-210.*

Fig. 8. Relative Alpha, Beta & Gamma Radiation-Energy) emitted by each atom of Rn-222, Po-218, Pb-214, Bi-214, Po-214. [4]

* NOTE: The horizontal line in Fig. 6 is 1.2 pCi/L; the activity at which Pb-210 in drinking water delivers a dose of 4 mRem/yr to an average person; the EPA MCL for Beta and/or Photon emitters adopted in 1976.



[1] The 2012 water quality report Suffolk County Water Authority (SCWA) sates: “In 2011 we monitored for radon, and gross alpha and beta particles at 87 locations throughout our distribution system. The results for each distribution area are noted on pages 13 through 19. Overall, the test results for radon ranged from non-detect (no radon found) to 303 pCi/L. Currently there is no established state or federal MCL for radon. EPA is proposing to require water suppliers to provide water with radon levels no higher than 4,000 pCi/L." Quote from See SCWA Radionuclides Tables @ https://gfxtechnology.com/Radon.html -- with a link to a Petition to Governor Cuomo entitled: Adopt Vermont's 5 pCi/L action level as a NYS MCL for Radon gases in each water well used for drinking, bottling, irrigation, or any other use.

[2] List of Alpha emitters regulated by the EPA’s Radionuclides Rule of 1976 in CERCLA Dirctive No. 9283.1-14.includes Ra-226, Po-218, Po-214, Po-210 NOT Rn-222. [http://www.epa.gov/superfund/health/contaminants/radiation/pdfs/9283_1_14.pdf

[3] Curves in Fig. B & C from equations 20(a) to 21(d) in Algebraic approach to the radioactive decay equations, L. Moral and A. F. Pacheco, Am. J. Phys. 71, July 2003 @ http://users.df.uba.ar/sgil/physics_paper_doc/papers_phys/modern/radiactive_dacay.pdf .

[4] NOTE: One MeV is equal to 0.16 trillionth of a joule, 1 rad equals 0.01 joules/kg, radiation energy levels and other parameters from pages 42 & 78, EVS Human Health Fact Sheet for Radium (Argonne National Laboratory, August 2005)

(This page @ gfxtechnology.com/Po.html)